The NET4CO2 strategy to promote a CO2 circular economy has two complementary objectives. Within these objectives, key process routes are defined and corresponding technical solutions will be proposed.The objectives are:
1) Offering to CO2 industrial producers, a more efficient and cost-effective alternative technology to Carbon Capture and Storage, CCS;
2) Developing processes that add value to captured greenhouse gases, GHGs.
Under these two fundamental objectives, initial focus is given to 4 main processes, as detailed in the figure below.
CO2 is separated from flue gas (N2/CO2) and captured by liquid water, in the form of gas hydrates/clathrates that can be transported as solid pellets for geological storage/sequestration, or as an hydrate slurry for transport in pipeline for O&G producers to enhance the recovery of oil (CO2-EOR, CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery).
A gas separation technology based on the formation of hydrates may also be applied for the purification of hydrogen from synthesis gas, and used for the clean production of electricity power, by gas turbines or by fuel cells. This electricity can then be supplied to the electrical grid.
Production of synthesis gas
Intermediate synthesis gas (mixture of CO and H2) is obtained from natural gas and CO2 or water, via steam or dry reforming processes. This synthesis gas may be sold to other industries or used for synthetic fuel production.
Production of synthetic fuel
Conversion of syngas into liquid hydrocarbons (Gas-to-Líquid, GtL) by the Fischer-Tropsch process. These hydrocarbons can then be used for transport, industrial or residential heating.